Hot Versus Cold Therapy

It can sometimes be confusing whether to use an ice pack or warm compress when treating sore muscles, pain, or an injury.


  • Brings more blood to the area where it is applied.

  • Reduces joint stiffness and muscle spasm, which makes it useful when muscles are tight.

  • Should NOT be used for the first 48 hours after an injury.

Types of warm packs / pads


  • Dampen a towel with warm (not scalding) water.

  • Put on the affected area to ease muscle spasm.


Be sure to protect any type of heating pad device from coming in direct contact with the skin. Precautions should be taken to avoid burns, especially if you have nerve damage, such as from diabetes or other health problems.

When muscles work, chemical byproducts are made that need to be eliminated. When exercise is very intense, there may not be enough blood flow to eliminate all the chemicals. It is the buildup of chemicals (for example, lactic acid) that cause muscle ache. Because the blood supply helps eliminate these chemicals, use heat to help sore muscles after exercise.



  • Eases pain by numbing the affected area.

  • Reduces swelling and inflammation.

  • Reduces bleeding.

Types of cold packs


  • Dampen a towel with cold water.

  • Fold it and place it in a plastic, sealable bag.

  • Place the bag in the freezer for 15 minutes.

  • Remove from freezer and place it on the affected area.


  • Put ice in a plastic, sealable bag.

  • Fill partially with water.

  • Seal the bag, squeezing the air out of it.

  • Wrap the bag in a damp towel and put it on the affected area.

When an injury or inflammation, such as tendonitis or bursitis occurs, tissues are damaged. Cold numbs the affected area, which can reduce pain and tenderness. Cold can also reduce swelling and inflammation.


john hopkins


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